• Dania Shoaib Khan Research Scholar, Department of Education, Institute of Business Management Karachi
  • Dr. Zehra Habib Senior Fellow and Associate Professor, Department of Education, Institute of Business Management Karachi


Special education, mainstreaming, disabled children, mentally disabled persons, autism spectrum disorder, rehabilitation of speech and language disorders, social skills


Objective: In order to provide equal educational opportunities, community school networking is an emerging trend to facilitate inclusion of children with mild-moderate Autism. This quantitative research aims to investigate the effectiveness of community networking for children with Autism from Pakistani lower socio-economic stratum of society.

Study Design: Qualitative Research Design

Study Settings and Participants: Six mild-moderate autistic children were enrolled in three mainstreams schools and a liaison between these schools, and a rehabilitation center located in the same area was created to facilitate inclusion. The researchers interviewed six teachers from mainstream schools, three school administrators and one administrator of rehabilitation regarding the effectiveness of community school networking for children with Autism after eight months of this collaboration.

Data Collection Tool: Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews

Results: All participating administrators and teachers underscored the changes in social and behavioral patterns of autistic children which included an imitation of positive behaviors from peers, acceptance, and awareness as strengths of community school networking model. However, major challenges faced were unacceptability from parents of normal children, learning differences, curriculum modifications, time constraints and dependency on the resource teacher. The administrators and teachers recommended that creating awareness programs for parents of normal children, curriculum modifications and in-house psychologists can further facilitate inclusion of children with disabilities.

Conclusion: It was concluded that community school networking model can assist inclusive education and encourage engagement for all children, including those who are autistic.

Author Biographies

Dania Shoaib Khan, Research Scholar, Department of Education, Institute of Business Management Karachi



Dr. Zehra Habib, Senior Fellow and Associate Professor, Department of Education, Institute of Business Management Karachi




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How to Cite

Khan, D. S. ., & Habib, D. Z. (2023). EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY SCHOOL NETWORKING FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM: PERSPECTIVES OF TEACHERS AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS. Pakistan Journal of Rehabilitation, 12(2), 24–34. Retrieved from http://ojs.zu.edu.pk/ojs/index.php/pjr/article/view/2068

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