• Ayesha Karim Lecturer, Allied Health Sciences Department, Lahore Institute of Science and Technology, Lahore
  • Saba Rafique Senior Lecturer, RCRS Riphah International University, Lahore
  • Hafiza Neelam Muneeb Senior Lecturer, RCRS Riphah International University, Lahore
  • Namra Saleem Physiotherapist, Sughra physiotherapy and poly clinic, Lahore


Abdominal cramps, menstruation, premenstrual syndrome, resistive exercise, female, luteal phase, follicular phase


Aims Of Study: Premenstrual syndrome is a collection of physical and psychological symptoms, the aim of the study is to compare the effects of resistive exercises and stretching of core abdominal muscles on abdominal cramps in premenstrual syndrome.

Methodology: It was a Randomized Clinical Trial with a convenient sampling technique. Data was collected from 40 participants who had abdominal cramps before periods. Data were taken from Asaaf Hospital Johar Town Lahore in 6 months duration. The premenstrual syndrome questionnaire and Numeric Pain Rating Scale was used for each participant before and after treatment. Group A received resistive exercises and B received stretching exercises.

Results: This study concludes that resistive exercises that are bridging, crunches and planks are more effective than stretching exercises on abdominal cramps in premenstrual syndrome.

Limitations and Future Implications: This study was conducted during the COVID lockdown, it was hard to follow up with the participants. Also more studies should be done on the women who face abdominal pain while menstruating and not before menses.

Originality: All the authors mentioned participated in the study and it was originally conducted by them in Lahore.

Conclusion: To conclude, resistive exercises are more effective on abdominal muscles in reducing abdominal cramps in premenstrual syndrome as compared to stretching exercises.


Chumpalova P, Iakimova R, Stoimenova-Popova M, Aptalidis D, Pandova M, Stoyanova M, et al. Prevalence and clinical picture of premenstrual syndrome in females from Bulgaria. Annals of general psychiatry. 2020;19(1): pp 1-7.

Gudipally PR, Sharma GK. Premenstrual syndrome. StatPearls [Internet]: StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jul 18.

Rapkin AJ, Akopians AL. Pathophysiology of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Menopause international. 2012;18(2): pp 52-59.

Zehravi M, Maqbool M, Ara I. Unfolding the mystery of premenstrual syndrome (PMS): an overview. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2022 Sep 19.

Dennerstein L, Lehert P, Heinemann K. Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms and disorders. Menopause international. 2012;18(2): pp 48-51.

Baker L, O’Brien P. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS): a peri-menopausal perspective. Maturitas. 2012;72(2): pp 121-125.

Bertone-Johnson ER, Whitcomb BW, Missmer SA, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Rich-Edwards JW. Early life emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the development of premenstrual syndrome: a longitudinal study. Journal of women's health. 2014;23(9): pp 729-739.

Eyre HA, Papps E, Baune BT. Treating depression and depression-like behavior with physical activity: an immune perspective. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2013 Feb 4; 4: pp 3.

Zamani Sani SH, Fathirezaie Z, Brand S, Pühse U, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Gerber M, et al. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2016: pp 2617-2625.

Tsai S-Y, Kuo F-C, Kuo H-C, Liao L-L. The prevalence of self-reported premenstrual symptoms and evaluation of regular exercise with premenstrual symptoms among female employees in Taiwan. Women & Health. 2018;58(3): pp 247-259.

ElDeeb AM, Atta HK, Osman DA. Effect of whole body vibration versus resistive exercise on premenstrual symptoms in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome. Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy. 2020;25: pp 1-6.

Çitil ET, Kaya N. Effect of pilates exercises on premenstrual syndrome symptoms: a quasi-experimental study. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2021;57: pp 102623.

Kucukkelepce DS, Unver H, Nacar G, Tashan ST. The effects of acupressure and yoga for coping with premenstrual syndromes on premenstrual symptoms and quality of life. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2021;42: pp 101282.

ROHMAH YKM, Mukhoirotin M. Abdominal stretching to reduce premenstrual syndrome: a case series. Medisains (Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Kesehatan). 2020;18(1): pp 37-40.

Maged AM, Abbassy AH, Sakr HR, Elsawah H, Wagih H, Ogila AI, et al. Effect of swimming exercise on premenstrual syndrome. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. 2018;297: pp 951-959.

Mohebbi Dehnavi Z, Jafarnejad F, Sadeghi Goghary S. The effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise on severity of physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome: a clinical trial study. BMC women's health. 2018;18(1): pp 1-7.

Takeda T, Yoshimi K, Yamada K. Psychometric testing of the premenstrual symptoms questionnaire and the association between perceived injustice and premenstrual symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Japanese high school students. International Journal of Women's Health. 2020: pp 755-763.

Alghadir AH, Anwer S, Iqbal A, Iqbal ZA. Test–retest reliability, validity, and minimum detectable change of visual analog, numerical rating, and verbal rating scales for measurement of osteoarthritic knee pain. Journal of pain research. 2018: pp 851-856.

Yekke Fallah L, Azimi H, Sadeghi T. The Effect of Aerobic and Walking Exercise on Physical and Psychological Symptoms and Pain of Premenstrual Syndrome. Iran Journal of Nursing (2008-5923). 2013;25(80).

20. Khanjari S, Oskouie F, Eshaghian Dorche A, Haghani H. Quality of life in parent of children with leukemia and its related factors. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2013;26(82): pp 1-10.

Chen H-M, Hu H-M. Randomized trial of modified stretching exercise program for menstrual low back pain. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2019;41(2): pp 238-257.

Kasraeian M, Esmaielzadeh F, Hozhabrian G, Shadmehri S, Kazemi N. Effects of an Eight-week Elastic Training and Foeniculum Vulgare Consumption on Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls: a Randomised Clinical Trial. Women’s Health Bulletin. 2021;8(2): pp 72-82.

Vaghela N, Mishra D, Sheth M, Dani VB. To compare the effects of aerobic exercise and yoga on Premenstrual syndrome. Journal of education and health promotion. 2019;8.

Sureshkumar S. The Effects of stretching exercises and walking in premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results. 2022: pp 715-722.

Kamalifard M, Yavari A, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Ghaffarilaleh G, Kasb-Khah A. The effect of yoga on women’s premenstrual syndrome: A randomized controlled clinical trial. International Journal of Women's Health and Reproduction Sciences. 2017;5(3): pp 205-211.

Hassan Ahmed A, Mohamed Hassan N, Hassan Shamekh A, S Badawy A. Effect of Pilates Exercises versus Benson Relaxation Technique on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms. Egyptian Journal of Health Care. 2022;13(2): pp 39-53.




How to Cite

Ayesha Karim, Rafique, S. ., Muneeb, H. N. ., & Saleem, N. . (2023). COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF RESISTIVE EXERCISES AND STRETCHING ON ABDOMINAL CRAMPS IN PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME . Pakistan Journal of Rehabilitation, 12(2), 138–146. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.