Zinc α-2 Glycoprotein (ZAG) a Novel Biomarker for the Detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Oral cancer, the most challenging and life threatening disease in the field of dentistry, may start as a reactive lesion due to constant stimulus from tobacco consumption, transform into a pre-malignant lesion (dysplastic lesion) and ultimately develop into a cancerous lesion (Invasive carcinoma). There is a fundamental revolution taking place in the analyzing methods; extraction of biological protein from the saliva rather than from tissues or blood. Several of the biomarkers have been studied with pro-carcinogenic effects like Interleukins (ILs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and leptin, but only a few have been stated in the literature, which show anti-cancer characteristics like adiponectin and zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein. This review explored the diagnostic and prognostic values of a biomarkers zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein (ZAG) in adults suspected of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for scientific studies reported on the potential mechanism of zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein. All the research articles were selected in which ZAG is applied solely or in conjunction with other biomarkers in oral cancer and other cancers. These literatures were carefully assessed to find out and compile the diagnostic and prognostic values and to inquire therapeutic action of ZAG in the process of carcinogenesis.